HUMAN DIGNITY IN ISLAM
Mihai Martoiu Ticu
There is an
apparent contradiction between the scourge of human rights abuses in the
Islamic world, Muslims craving for values we associate with Western democratic
states, and their view that
rather more Sharia,
not less, would bring Muslims happiness. I hope to explain this contradiction
by describing the Islamic concept of human dignity.
has proclaimed human dignity an inherent right of the individual in an absolute
and unqualified sense (
) and this then provides a matrix for the rest of his
Dignity is the essence of being, the core of the human entity and the backbone
of his character.
The word dignity occurs seven times in the Arab Charter on Human Rights
and six times in
the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights
. So what does this
human dignity mean in Islam?
Abdulaziz Othman Altwaijri explains that karama (verb karuma), the Arabic for
dignity, means unlimited generosity, giving with ease, charitable soul,
kindness, one that never gives to take and always confers without expecting a
return of favours or profits, unmatched hospitality. Karama is also used for
an indisputable extraordinary gift. A synonym of the verb refers to
preciousness and precious stones. When linked with Gods name it denotes a
bestowal of honour, and protection from sully. But a person can honour herself
(karrama) by rising above all sins, misdeeds and all matters belittling. The
generous is tolerant and forgiving. Thus, all meanings converge to convey the
idea of abundance, munificence, ease and facility in giving and granting with
no underlying interests (...)Placed before the utterance (qualum karim), this
adjective confers on this saying the aspect of ease and softness, and is
generally used to refer to the best of everything. Takrim then is conferring
all these virtues and noble meanings on the person.
Googling one can find also other meanings of the word family like:
(karrama = verb)
glorify, venerate, reverence, revere, respect, laud, lionize, admire, ennoble,
eulogize, extol, hold in esteem, make great, do honor to, confer honor upon,
look up to, exalt, regard as grand, regard as magnificent
كَرَم (karam = substantive)
magnanimity, openhandedness, liberality
كَرُم (Karoema = verb)
be free-handed, be munificent
bestowal of honors upon, doing honor to, deference, tribute, welcome
Uncompromised Fraternity bestowed by God
The human dignity is characterized by unity and equality. Dignity, nobility and honour is
bestowed on all human beings at birth, without limitations or qualifications,
the pious and sinner alike, it is a absolute and proven right of every human
being regardless of colour, race or religion(
) a natural right. It is surely not something
conditionally obtained, or earned by meritorious conduct, nor does it depend on
personal attributes or status in society, but for the fact that they are human
beings. Equality is stressed in the right to justice, protection of the law,
education, employment and enjoyment of basic liberties. Even criminals are
entitled to dignified treatment. Punishment is for retribution and reform not
indignity and humiliation.
According to Christopher
Weeramantry this egalitarian spirit is stressed in Islam from the beginning:
brothers and all being alike the children of Adam, there could be no affront to
the human dignity of any single person without being an affront to the dignity
of all including the dignity of the perpetrator of indignity. Man, being
Gods creation on whom he had showered his choicest blessings, could not be
subject to a violation of that dignity by man. Dignity was intrinsic to his
personality and no regime, however powerful, could take it away from him.
Physical and Spiritual Pre-Eminence
The human is created as an image of God, in the best form and best image, with beauty
and elegance, matched by a spiritual endowment of the highest order. Man
takes a special place in the Universe, is appointed Gods vicegerent on earth
and his mission is to establish a just order. The angels have to prostrate to
man as sign of his superior spirit and his superior capacity for knowledge. In
a sense this kind of dignity seems close to the meaning of the word when used
in relation to dignitaries. A Muslim can only worship God as Sovereign and he
will not humble himself to anybody else. The capacity for speech and mans
faculty to perfect himself, to fulfill his enormous potential are considered a
part of his dignity. All those capacities are a sign of Gods love for
Sanctity of life and personal safety
sanctified and in the prohibition of aggression against it Muslims and
non-Muslims are alike.
During a military engagement combatants have a special responsibility not to destroy
civilian life, it is unlawful to attack women, children, elderly, the insane,
the ill, invalids, blind, the unconscious, priests and monks engaged in
worship, farmers not involved in the conflict. One should be fair and avoid
excessive violence and be inclined towards peace. While the law forbids taking
another persons property without his consent, it permits a starving person to
rob another of his excess food or water. The religious rituals and duties can
be interrupted for safety reasons.
The right to
personal safety is also dignity as constraint. One is not allowed to commit
suicide, must avoid life-threatening situations, dangerous drugs, exposure to
diseases. Granting others permission to kill her is legally void. Mutilations
of the (dead) body is forbidden, except for medical reasons. Eight out of nine
classical legal schools permitted contraception. There is division about
abortion, when allowed is up to 120 days
Virtue and character There is a special attention for a upright character as a proof of distinction and dignity
in the eyes of the law. Backbiting is a major sin and Islam takes very serious
offence in the attacks on the honor and good name of upright individuals.
Dignity is violated by ridicule, defamation, sarcasm, acrimonious bickering,
insulting disbelievers. Slanderous accusation is punished by eighty whip
lashes, and the slanderous accuser is forbidden to witness again, because she
might have inflicted irreparable damage to the good name and honour of her
victim and humiliating a fellow Muslim makes one an evil-doer. One should
conceal the weaknesses of others and turn a blind eye to their failings.
Suspicion amounts to the worst form of lying.
Kamali considers a commitment to virtue, the promotion of good and the prevention of
evil (hisbah) related to human dignity, especially tolerance. Moral excellence
avoids the reciprocity warranted by law and justice, and promotes forgiveness.
Virtue manifests itself also in humility, meekness (al-haya) and leniency
(al-rifq). A major theme in Islams teaching is the pleasant social behavior
and dignified social encounter, beautiful manners
Freedom of conscience, moral autonomy, individuality
The dignity of man is manifested, perhaps more than anything else, in his freedom of
conscience, moral autonomy and judgment.
Kamali acknowledges that the common good takes priority, to large extent, in the event
of conflict of interests between individual and community, but the individual
is not totally subsumed by social purpose and interest. Talking about individual
interests as something fundamentally different from the interests of the
community is neither accurate nor sound. The idea of common good is
inherently relative and often involves a compromise of some sort between
individual and social interests (
) The Sharia would normally not sacrifice the
basic rights and liberties of the individual and his human dignity and honour
in the name of common good, or of communal interest (
) The individual is thus
seen, not just as a member of the community and subservient to its will, but as
a morally autonomous agent who plays a distinctive role in shaping the
communitys sense of direction and purpose.
Respect for personal privacy is manifested in the sanctity of a the home and inviolability
of the personal correspondence, rejection of eavesdropping and espionage. Thus
authorities have to act on what they already know through direct observation,
not on suspicion.
Government accountability and basic needs
As part of the individual dignity there is an individual right to correct a ruler and attack his decisions. In order to become reality dignity necessitates considerations for basic human needs and poverty is seen as degradation. The Muslim society has a duty to take care of the sick, the orphan and the poor.
Human dignity plays a central role in Islam. Dignity is seen as Gods love and honour for man, is inherent to human nature, without exceptions. Dignity is infinite and ultimate value. Premised on dignity are the inviolability of life, liberty, property and honour. Although the common good receives priority in many cases, Islam does not make a clear distinction between the individual and public interests, individual happiness on earth being one of the aims. Dignity manifests itself in moral autonomy and virtues, like charitable traits, tolerance, refrain from violence and respect for others. Considering the importance of human dignity in Islam, their well-known human rights abuses make the tyrants in the Muslim world look like alien dignitaries from out of space. No insult intended to aliens.